Adapting to Our Changing Climate


2012-07-25252007_18_03_revThe Gulf of Maine is steadily getting warmer, bringing significant changes to both the ecosystem and the economics of the region.

Throughout the summer of 2012, ocean temperatures spiked to 3 to 5 degrees above the long-term average. This ocean heat wave provided us with a glimpse at how species might react to the warm temperatures that are predicted to be the norm by the end of the century.

Working alongside researchers from the University of Maine, Stony Brook University, and NOAA, we found that some species moved north to seek refuge in cooler waters and others migrated earlier than usual. These behavioral changes had substantial impact on commercial fishermen, affecting both the species variety and the selling price of their catch.

Gulf of Maine lobsters, for instance, migrated shoreward about a month earlier than usual, bringing an early start to the summer harvest. While lobstermen proceeded to catch a record number of the crustaceans, the abundance flooded the market and the price paid to lobstermen tanked.

Another response to warming waters is that new species from more southerly waters have begun to appear with greater frequency. Summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, longfin squid, and Illex squid are all now regularly seen in the Gulf.

In order to sustain marine ecosystems, scientists and fishery managers need to be able to rapidly adjust to changes in climate. In a research paper on the 2012 ocean heat wave, we outlined a number of recommendations to help them prepare for and react to a changing climate, such as:

  • Models that link physical changes to ecosystem and economic impacts
  • Using real-time data streams to detect and predict unusual events
  • Greater flexibility in fishery management to accommodate and adjust to future climate events

We also recently published, “Preparing for Emerging Fisheries: An Overview of Mid-Atlantic Stocks on the Move.” This report focuses on the opportunities and challenges associated with seven emerging species in the Gulf of Maine to help fisheries managers prepare for the changes that are headed our way.


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Dealers Delivering on Continuous Improvement


GoMRHsealThe Gulf of Maine Responsibly Harvested® brand provides consumers with an easy way to identify Gulf of Maine seafood that meets science-based criteria around responsible harvest. But for dealers, joining the cooperative branding effort means much more than just putting a label on their seafood.

Licensed dealers commit to yearly goals focused on what we call “continuous improvement” of their business’ overall sustainability. Since joining the program, dealers have engaged in projects such as reducing energy usage by upgrading cooling and lighting systems, investing in equipment for composting fish waste from processing, using biodegradable plastics for packaging, and improving their processing systems to reduce water usage.

Sanders Lobster Company, a licensed dealer in Portsmouth, NH, is a third-generation, family-owned business. Two years ago, they set the goal to reduce their waste by finding a recyclable alternative to the wax-coated boxes they traditionally used for shipping live lobsters. Wax-coated boxes hold up well to carrying wet lobsters, but they are not recyclable and typically end up in a landfill after a single use.

By working closely with their packaging supplier, Sanders tested multiple iterations of a biodegradable, recyclable box made of 100% recycled cardboard. Over the course of more than a year, Sanders piloted the boxes and continued working with their supplier to make further improvements. The new boxes are now in regular use, and Sanders estimated that 40,000 pounds of waste was diverted from landfills with the first 25,000 boxes shipped.

Look for the Gulf of Maine Responsibly Harvested brand next time you’re shopping for seafood at Hannaford, Shaw’s, or Big Y. Under each label, you’ll find seafood you can feel good about. Behind each label, you’ll find a licensed dealer working hard to increase the overall sustainability of their industry.

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New Partnership Enhances Impact Assessment


The mission of our science education programs is to support student’s development of “science literacy”—a complex suite of critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and communication skills. We’ve long had a pile of anecdotal evidence that our programs are working, but how can we be certain that the 15,000 students who engage with our programs each year are developing these essential yet hard-to-measure skills?

Over the last year, we’ve been working with two faculty members at the University of Maine, Jon Shemwell and Dan Capps, to look more deeply at student learning in our programs, particularly around the skill of reasoning with evidence.

For our LabVenture! program, the UMaine team spent a month recording student conversations and observing student teams in action. They then analyzed the conversations to look at how successful students were at identifying and using relevant evidence as a team.

The research revealed that LabVenture! was indeed achieving the goal of engaging students in challenging activities in which they identified and reasoned with evidence. The researchers also found that the tasks were appropriately challenging for students, and that the program engaged them in higher-order thinking about a range of science topics.

For our Vital Signs program, Shemwell and Capps are currently collaborating with our staff and Maine teachers to develop a virtual investigation that measures students’ reasoning and collaboration skills. They are also working on a survey to measure students’ interest and attitude toward science both before and after participating in the program.

Innovative education programs require equally innovative assessment programs, and this type of in-depth evaluation has long been one of our aspirations. Our recent partnership with University of Maine, paired with our work with Stanford University, is allowing us to understand our programs like never before and discover new ways to better serve Maine’s students.



A variety of teachers, students, parents, and thought leaders share their perspectives on GMRI’s education programs.

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MREP expands to the Gulf of Mexico


MREP-Southeast-Logo-altWhile fishermen, scientists, and regulators don’t always share the same language, their long-term goal is essentially the same – make use of fishery resources today in way that supports them being here tomorrow. Over the past decade, GMRI has collaborated on a fishing industry-led initiative to build greater understanding and trust among these groups through the Marine Resource Education Program (MREP).

This intensive training program immerses fishermen in the science and policy behind fisheries management, helping them understand the information, language, and processes that govern their industry. Equipped with this vital primer, fishermen can better engage in the regulatory process, ensuring that their valuable perspectives and insights are heard.

As word of the New England-based program spread, applications began rolling in from faraway places such as Texas, Maryland, and even Puerto Rico. GMRI and our partners first piloted program extensions in the Mid-Atlantic, and this year we launched MREP Southeast to serve the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean fisheries. To kick off the effort, we convened a local steering committee consisting of a diverse group of stakeholders from around the region. The group hosted their first science and managements workshops in April and September 2013.

The science workshop featured a series of hands-on stations, a tour through the Florida Fish & Wildlife Research Institute, and a visit aboard research vessels. Discussion topics focused on species protection including barotrauma reduction, turtle excluder device compliance, and habitat restoration.

The Management workshop, largely designed around a mock council scenario, allowed everyone to try their hand at decision-making and negotiations within the fishery management process. Council staff from the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean regions offered tips on participating effectively in the council forum and provided resources to engage with ongoing council developments.

MREP Southeast will be offered again in 2014. For more information on workshop dates and the application process, visit

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Otolith Growth Patterns Shedding Light on Alewives


Annual rings - verticalWhile alewives spend most of their life at sea, their early days in freshwater spawning grounds are some of the most influential of their lives. Environmental conditions during this time can set the lifetime growth trajectory of the fish, influencing their susceptibility to predators and long-term survival when they reach the ocean. These conditions can vary greatly among river systems and offer scientists a unique opportunity to identify markers that link a fish back to its spawning location.

Our Fisheries Ecologist, Lisa Kerr, is looking at alewives’ growth patterns during their first 30 days of life by examining their inner ear bones. These structures, called otoliths, contain growth rings like those found in trees. By viewing an otolith under a microscope, we can measure how much it grew each day and then calculate the growth rate of the fish.

If we can identify patterns in early growth among alewives, we might be able to use otoliths to identify the spawning location of an individual alewife, as well as understand the factors that might be driving differences in growth among river systems.

Alewives along the east coast of the United Sates have been dwindling for decades and were even recently considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act. While some rivers still support healthy runs of alewives, others only support a few thousand returning adults each year. Without a way to tell which populations alewives caught at sea are coming from, it’s impossible to tell whether some groups are being disproportionately caught as bycatch by fishermen targeting other species.

We’ve already been able to identify differences emerging in growth patterns, and we’re now trying to determine the factors that might be driving those differences. Otoliths from all 14 sampling locations show similar growth rates in the first few days after hatching, but we see much more variation by the end of their first month.

We’re currently looking for correlation with environmental differences between systems, such as temperatures, habitat availability, and fresh water flow. If we can understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, we’ll be able to better identify unique characteristics of populations.


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Developing National Learning Standards


staff-3959By Sarah Kirn, Education Programs Strategist

While there are many opinions on what it means and how to go about it, Americans wholeheartedly agree on the importance of education for our young people and for our country’s future. One strategy that education policy makers employ to try to improve education in the United States is the identification of standards – defined learning outcomes, or performance expectations that students should meet by certain times in their education.

Two unprecedented national efforts have begun rolling out across the country: the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics and English Language Arts and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). These are the first national efforts designed to create and increase opportunity for states to collaborate and share best practices on teacher preparation and curriculum development.

In 2012 Anita Bernhardt, then Maine’s State Science and Technology Specialist and currently Coordinator for Standards and Instruction, asked me to serve as one of the Maine educators reviewing the NGSS drafts. Our task was to evaluate the developing standards’ adherence to the Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, a 2010 research report by the National Research Council designed to guide the development of the NGSS with a bold vision of what science education should be.

Participating in the NGSS review process was a great opportunity for me to hear firsthand the reactions of classroom educators and school administrators to the standards and to represent GMRI’s broader perspective as informal educators. The NGSS authors had an enormous task in translating the research-based vision of the Framework into performance expectations for K-12 students. No doubt, the debate about how well they did this, as well as the feasibility and appropriateness of standards, will continue into the future.

As you read these debates, I encourage you to remember that the standards are meant to create common targets, not defined pathways. I know that the explicit intention of the NGSS was not to define curriculum but to define a suite of interdependent practices, knowledge, and ideas that students need to master.

I don’t think we’ll know the impact that the NGSS will have on education until the corresponding assessments are developed, which is an effort still in the planning stages. But whether the standards eventually take hold or not, it’s clear that the transformative ideas of the Framework for K-12 Science Education are solid and are already helping educators re-envision the way we teach science in schools.

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Report Recommends Changes to Lobstering Licenses


Pulling trapsA lot has changed since the current licensing system for Maine’s lobster fishery was created almost two decades ago. Landings have almost doubled and shifted eastward, fuel costs have tripled, and the estimated wait time for a license in most zones has grown to greater than 20 years.

During the summer of 2012, Maine’s State Legislature and Department of Marine Resources (DMR) contracted GMRI to conduct an independent, objective examination of the limited-entry licensing system and look for potential ways to improve it. We held a series of public meetings to understand the concerns of affected communities and conducted a written survey of more than 7,000 licensed lobstermen, apprentices, and individuals on the waiting lists.

A key finding was that management of the fishery is being significantly complicated by a disconnect between how much lobstermen are licensed to fish and how much they actually fish. This “latent effort” poses a significant threat to the lobster population as the number of traps in the water can double without additional licenses being issued.

The final report offered several recommendations designed to protect the fishery, reduce wait times, support coastal economies, and establish a method to prevent overfishing of the lobster population. One such proposal was the creation of a tiered licensing system that would assign scale licenses based on lobstermen’s landings history. This approach would greatly reduce the latent effort in the system, and it would allow new lobstermen to start with a smaller number of traps and increase over time.

The report has provided us with valuable insights into the lobster fishery and inspired us to seek out answers to a number of questions that have emerged from our research:

  • How did the 2012 ocean heat wave affect the profitability and timing of landing in each zone? What does this tell us about the future if temperatures continue to rise?
  • How does the timing of the summer lobster harvest interact with the international market structure of the lobster industry? Is there way for lobstermen to pace their landings in a way that would maintain a higher value for Maine lobsters?

Look for updates on our efforts to answer these questions as our research progresses.

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International Seafood Summit


Written by Jen Levin, Sustainable Seafood Program Manager, and Sam Gimley, Sustainable Seafood Project Manager

China is a big deal. On our desks alone, the pencil holders, lamps, monitors, and computers were all MADE IN CHINA. China’s impact on global markets is no secret, and the same holds for seafood. China is the biggest producer, consumer, and exporter of seafood in the world. With this market power, China holds enormous influence over seafood sustainability.

So it made sense to bring the 10th International Seafood Summit, an annual conference focused on seafood sustainability, to Hong Kong this past September. We were fortunate to attend, along with a few hundred other representatives from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the seafood industry, research institutions, and management agencies.

Over the three-day conference, we learned a lot about what is going on around the world to improve the sustainability of seafood, and we learned about some of the continuing challenges. Overall, some themes emerged for us:

  • IUU (Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated) fishing continues to be a problem. Many efforts are in place to trace product back to the vessel so that buyers can be assured their product was legally harvested. Overall, transparency is becoming an expectation, and opportunities for traceability are evolving.
  • NGOs increasingly work with, rather than against, industry on initiatives to improve on the sustainability of seafood. Fishery Improvement Projects, or FIPs, are becoming ubiquitous around the world (stay tuned for more about an example of a FIP in Indonesia).
  • Aquaculture plays a huge role in seafood production (over half of the world’s seafood supply is now farm-raised), bringing with it a whole suite of its own sustainability issues. The shear scope of people involved is overwhelming. In Thailand alone, there are over 1 million hectares dedicated to shrimp farming, and 80% of that production is small scale.

While we primarily focus on Gulf of Maine seafood here, understanding the global supply and marketplace helps enormously as we work with buyers who play a critical role in creating market demand for responsible practices around the world. After all, according to the FDA, we import over 80% of the seafood we consume, most of which hails from…You guessed it: China.

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Out of the Blue Mackerel Recap and a Little-known Fishing Practice


Squid in weir

Written by Sam Gimley,
Sustainable Seafood Project Manager

Last Sunday concluded the Out of the Blue Atlantic mackerel promotion.  When the project’s Steering Team originally selected mackerel for promotion, the sentiment was that it would provide the greatest challenge to promote, despite having the largest Total Allowable Catch of the five selected Out of the Blue species.  Mackerel are migratory fish that prefer cooler water, and it is unclear what impact the abnormally warm ocean temperatures in the Gulf of Maine are having on the seasonal distribution of mackerel.  In addition, mackerel has one of the lowest ex-vessel values in the region, which provides little incentive for fishermen to harvest it.  The combination of these two factors can result in an inconsistent mackerel supply, unlike the previously promoted redfish.  Despite concerns around supply, participating restaurants were able to communicate their demand for mackerel and fishermen responded in time to secure mackerel for the promotional period and beyond.

One of those fishermen was Dan Harriman, who fishes out of Cape Elizabeth, Maine.  Dan is a diverse harvester who mixes lobstering, with lesser-known fishing practices such as tub trawling and weir fishing.  Weirs are stationary or fixed nets placed in areas where fish congregate, typically near a river or shallow water.  The lead part of the weir net guides the fish (or squid) through a “V” shaped opening and into an enclosed pen.  The narrow end of the “V” makes it difficult for fish to escape and the fish remain in the enclosure until they are harvested.  Weirs are one of the oldest forms of fishing, but are no longer commonly used in the region.  Dan’s weir has been in his family since the 1950s and he has been fishing it for the last 10 years.

During GMRI’s Trawl to Table event, when Dan’s weir-caught squid was served at lunch, Dan explained that he also harvested mackerel from his the weir and suggested I come see how it was fished.  Given that I had never seen a weir in action before, I promptly accepted.  Two weeks later, I spent the morning with Dan and his crew as they emptied the weir of 400 pounds of squid and 40 pounds of bluefish.  Dan explained that it requires two skiffs and his larger lobster boat to school the catch into a small area, where it is then hauled out of the water and iced down in totes.  It was a remarkably quick process and only took a few hours, allowing Dan and his son to spend the rest of the day lobstering.  Although the weir produced no mackerel the morning I visited (they harvested 7,000 pounds the day before of course), it was still a fascinating glimpse into a unique fishing practice.  Pictures of my visit can be seen here, along with a brief video.

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Climate and Calanus in the Gulf of Maine


Written by Ellen Agnew, Communications Intern


The threat of climate change has scientists asking questions large and small about the impact it may have on our world. At the “Gulf of Maine in a Changing Climate” conference at Bowdoin College this past June, local researchers discussed the changes they’ve seen in the Gulf of Maine, from large shifts in ocean circulation to the effects of increased river discharge. Gulf of Maine Research Institute and University of Maine scientists, Drs. Andrew Pershing, Nicholas Record, and Jeffrey Runge talked about an organism smaller than a grain of rice, the zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus (pictured right). The future of the Gulf may hinge on the fate of Calanus so though their subject is small, the importance of their research may be enormous.

Despite its high abundance, Calanus in the Gulf of Maine is not well-understood. Runge seeks to describe the Calanus life cycle. The Gulf of Maine is at the southernmost end of the Calanus’ range and is warmer than its northern habitats. Typically, Calanus spend late winter and spring feeding, building their lipid stores, and producing offspring. In summer, Calanus enters diapause, a state similar to hibernation, and lives off of its lipid stores while food is scarce and predation is high. Runge and his team modeled the Calanus life cycle in the Gulf. Contrary to expectations, they found that the Calanus were spending only half the time in diapause as they would in their northern range. The warmer temperatures of the Gulf cause Calanus to consume its fat stores more quickly and it ends its diapause prematurely. The Calanus then produces an extra fall generation, an event unique to Calanus in the Gulf of Maine. Further understanding of the Calanus life cycle in the Gulf of Maine could be gained through more consistent monitoring.

In an effort to illuminate the history of Calanus in the Gulf of Maine, Pershing and Record analyzed 45 years of data collected by Continuous Plankton Recorders, devices that are towed behind ships to collect plankton specimens. They found that plankton biodiversity in the Gulf skyrocketed during the 90s. In terrestrial ecosystems, high biodiversity leads to ecosystem stability and strength. However, in the Gulf of Maine, as many plankton species thrived, Calanus populations plummeted. This depletion of Calanus meant there was less to eat for Calanus’ predators, including the endangered right whale. Their research highlights not only the importance and complexity of Calanus’ place in the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, but the need for further study of how biodiversity operates in oceanic systems. A rise in biodiversity will not bode well for the Gulf if its crucial keystone species, the Calanus is lost in exchange.

The 90s spike in biodiversity was likely the result of changes in arctic winds in the late 80s that sent fresh, arctic waters spilling into the Gulf of Maine. Calanus flourish in cold, salty, ‘oceanic’ waters. The Gulf is currently growing warmer and fresher, indicating that the Gulf of the 90s may have been foreshadowing a Gulf of the future. Experts are cautioning Calanus could disappear from the Gulf entirely, possibly within the next fifty years. However, this prediction is based on studies done in the northern end of the Calanus range. However, Runge’s research revealed differences between Gulf of Maine Calanus and their northern brethren. By understanding the Calanus life cycle and its overall role in the Gulf of Maine specifically, the researchers may be able to better pinpoint what might happen to Calanus…and what might happen to the Gulf of Maine if the Calanus vanishes.

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